Preventive measures are the first line of defense of an efficient compliance management system. In this context, comprehensive training programs have been carried out across the Group in recent years. E-learning systems are increasingly being used in addition to face-to-face training in order to achieve the broadest possible training effect. For example, to date Web-based e-learning courses have been used to train some 10,000 Group employees in antitrust law and some 22,500 employees with respect to the Code of Conduct, in each case including a final test. Face-to-face training is tailored to target groups, for one, and generally carried out in connection with executive training programs as well as specific training programs for non-executive employees in sales and procurement, for another. In addition to these measures, compliance issues are brought to the attention of voestalpine’s personnel through regular communications, especially employee magazines and poster campaigns or in the context of Group and divisional events.